List of Works



I. Editor


Of L’Hygiène de la Race. Eugénisme médical et Hygiène raciale en Allemagne, edited collection in  2 volumes, with Paul Weindling (Oxford University, UK) and Peter Weingart (University of Bielefeld, Germany),  La Découverte, Paris; vol. 1 (Preface Massin + text Paul Weindling) 1998.


II. Contributions to edited collections


·        "L'Anthropologie raciale comme fondement de la Science politique: Vacher de Lapouge et l'échec de l'«anthroposociologie» en France". In Cl. Blanckaert (ed.), Les Politiques de l'Anthropologie. Discours et pratiques en France (1860-1940), Paris, L'Harmattan, Collection "Histoire des Sciences Humaines", 2001, pp. 269-334.


·        "Stérilisation et contrôle médico-étatique des naissances en Allemagne nazie (1933-1945). La mise en pratique de l'Utopie biomédicale". In A. Giami & H. Leridon (ed.), Les enjeux de la Stérilisation, INSERM, collection "Questions en Santé Publique", Paris, 2000, pp.63-122.


·        "Anthropologie und Humangenetik im Nationalsozialismus, oder: Wie schreiben deutsche Wissenschaftler ihre eigene Wissenschaftsgeschichte?", in Heidrun Kaupen-Haas & Christian Saller (ed.), Wissenschaftlicher Rassismus, Frankfurt/Main, Campus, 1999, pp.12-64


·        "From Virchow to Fischer: Physical Anthropology and ‘Modern Race Theories‘ in Wilhelmine Germany (1890-1914)”. In G.W. Stocking (ed.), Volksgeist as Method and Ethic: Essays on Boasian Ethnography and the German Anthropological Tradition, coll. History of Anthropology, vol.8, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1996, pp. 79-154.


·        "Anthropologie raciale et national-socialisme. Heurs et malheurs du paradigme de la «race»". In J. Olff-Nathan (ed.), La science sous le Troisième Reich, Paris, Seuil, 1993, pp.197-262. Translated in Japanese 1998. With contributions from ten other American, German and French contributors (H. Mehrtens, M. Walker, Sh. Weiss, etc.).


·        "Lutte des classes, lutte des races". In: C. Blanckaert (ed.), Des sciences contre l’homme, Paris, Autrement Publ. C°, "Sciences in Society" collection, 1993, vol.1, pp. 127-143.



III. Journal articles


·        "La science nazie et l'extermination des marginaux" + historical outlines of "Eugenics" in L'Histoire, January 1998, n°217: pp. 52-59.


·        "L'euthanasie psychiatrique sous le IIIe Reich: la question de l'eugénisme", L'Information Psychiatrique, October 1996 (72, 8): pp. 811-822.


·        "De l’anthropologie physique libérale à la biologie raciale eugénico-nordiciste en Allemagne (1870-1914). Virchow-Luschan-Fischer", Revue d’Allemagne, t.25, n°3, Jully-Sept. 1993, pp.387-404.


·        "Le IIIe Reich : une «biocratie»? Les nouvelles tendances de la recherche historiographique sur le rôle des sciences bio-médicales. Orientation bibliographique. 1ère partie: médecine et psychiatrie". In Bulletin de la Mission Historique Française en Allemagne, n° 25, Dec. 1992, pp.53-78.

[This article is an extract of a 220 page annotated bibliography of some 150 books and doctorate theses (+ a selection of articles) on "Nazi medicine", combined with a quantitative analysis on the international level and historiographical essay, of how (and by whom) the question has been historically treated in the world from 1945 to 1992.


·        "De l’eugénisme à l’euthanasie 1890-1945", La Recherche, Dec. 1990, pp.1563-1568. Translated into Spanish: "Del eugenismo a la «Operaciòn eutanasia»: 1890-1945", in Mundo Cientifico, n°110, Feb. 1991, pp.207-212.



IV. Dictionary/Encyclopedia Entries


Ø      Dictionnaire des oeuvres philosophiques, ed. J.-F. Mattéi, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1992 (each, except Tönnies, complete with biography and complete bibliography):


Social scientists:

            Hippolyte Taine 1828-1893 (3 titles), pp. 2142-2145.

            Ludwig Gumplowicz 1838-1909 (2 titles)*.

            Werner Sombart 1863-1941 (13 titles), pp. 2845-2855.

            Ferdinand Tönnies 1855-1936 (1 title) *.

            Roberto Michels 1876-1936 (1 title), pp. 2679-81.

            Richard Thurnwald 1869-1954 (1 title), pp. 2885-2887.

            Thorstein Veblen 1857-1929 (1 title)  *.


Race Theoreticians:

            Arthur de Gobineau 1806-1882 (1 title), pp. 1796-1797.

            George Vacher de Lapouge 1854-1936 (3 titles), pp.2898-2900.

            Otto Ammon 1842-1916 (1 title), p.2206.

            Ludwig Woltmann 1871-1907 (2 titles), pp.2943-2944.

            Houston Stewart Chamberlain 1855-1927 (3 titles), pp.2323-2325.

            Madison Grant 1865-1937 (1 title), pp.2457-2458.

            H.F.K. Günther 1891-1968 (2 titles), pp.2464-65.

Political Essayist:

            Ernst Niekisch 1889-1967 (2 titles), pp. 2705-2707.



Ø      Dictionnaire  du Darwinisme et de l'Évolution, P. Tort (ed.), Paris, PUF (1996):

            Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940), pp.3483-84.

            Wilhelm Schallmayer (1857-1919), pp.3785-86.


Ø      Modern Germany. An Encyclopedia of History, People and Culture, 1871-1990, ed. by D. K. Buse & J. Doerr, Garland Publishing Inc., New York & London, 1998:

            "Physical Anthropology (1870-1970)" (pp.31-33)

            "Niekisch, Ernst (1889-1967)" (pp. 712-713)



V. Work in progress, Articles in press


"Criminalité: la solution Biomédicale".

On the biological theories of crime and the attempts to solve "medically" the problem of crime, from the first US eugenic sterilizations of criminals in 1907, through psychosurgery of the 1960's, up to the "Violence initiative" program launched by the NIH in 1992.


"La question de l'eugénisme aujourd'hui: les trois modèles".

Has eugenics come back in the 1980's through the backdoor of new medical practices and genetic technologies? The question of eugenics today is tackled through an international comparison: the "classic" coercitive-collective model in Asia (China, Singapore, Taiwan); the neo-liberal model of health (USA: private health insurance combined with genetic testing); the Welfare-State model (Western Europe: national health insurance pays systematic pre-natal screening). If the qualification of "eugenics" is quite clear in the Asian case, can it be applied to what is going on in Europe and Northern America? (or "What's in a name?")


"Les origines du Code de Nuremberg et du «consentement éclairé»". 90-page manuscript.


"Was wurde in einem Rassenforschunginstitut im Nationalsozialismus geforscht? Das KWI für Anthropologie, menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik". In D. Kaufmann & H.-W. Schmuhl (eds.), Rassenforschung im Nationalsozialismus, Göttingen, Wallstein Verlag, forthcoming 2002.


"Mengele, Verschuer und Zwillingsforschung in NS-Deutschland" in C. Sachse (ed.), Biowissenschaften und Menschenversuche an Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten. Die Verbindung nach Auschwitz, forthcoming 2002.

"Eye and Hair Color Experiments between Auschwitz and Dahlem: Mengele, Magnussen and the Biochemical Genetics of Pigmentation". Will be submitted to the Bulletin for the History of Medicine.

”The Genetics of Race: from Bastardforschung to Phenogenetics of racial characteristics at the KWI for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics”.






VI. Book reviews (selected list)


Ø      For GRADHIVA (Review for the history and archives of anthropology).


- P. Weingart, J. Kroll, K. Bayertz, Rasse, Blut und Gene. Geschichte der Eugenik in Deutschland, 1988 (n°9, 1991, pp.118-120).


            - B. Müller-Hill, Science nazie, science de mort (=Murderous Science), 1989 (n°9, 1991,               pp.116-118).


Ø        For Vingtième Siècle. Revue d’Histoire  (XXth century history review):

- N. Frei (ed.), Medizin und Gesundheit in der NS-Zeit, Munich, 1991, n°34, April-June 1992, pp. 217-219. 


Ø        For La Revue d'Allemagne  (German history review) 1998:

- E. Conte & C. Essner, La Quête de la race, Hachette, 1995 (1998 [30/2]: 229-233).


Ø        For La Recherche  (Scientific magazine):

            - A. Harrington, Reenchanted Science, Princeton UP, 1996 (May 1997).

-          Françoise Héritier (ed.), De la Violence, Odile Jacob, 1996 (Sept. 1997).


Ø      For Bulletin of the History of Medicine :

            - H. Biesold, Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany, Gallaudet UP, 1999 (2001, vol.75, pp. 165-168).

VII - Lectures & presentations

·        Ecole Pratique des Hautes Études (Paris): 2 x 2 hours colloquium to the seminar for post-graduate students of Prof. Jeanne Favret-Saada, May and June 1991, on eugenics in Germany («New Trends of Research on the History of Eugenics» and «Institutionalisation of German Eugenics before 1933»).

·        CNRS (= Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), Orléans : lecture on «Eugenics, Genetics, Anthropology and Racism», in a cycle of 3 conferences organized by Dr. M. Katouzian-Safadi, June 1991.

·        Institute of Anthropology at the University of Mainz: lecture (in German) on «Rassenkunde und National-sozialismus : Anpassung oder Symbiose ?», Dec. 1991.

·        *idem : debate with questions-answers on the same subject for students, Feb. 1992.

·        Robert Schumann University of Strasbourg, Centre d’Etudes Germaniques : paper on «From Liberal physical Anthropology to therapeutic, Nordic-racist Racial Biology in Germany (1870-1914). Virchow-Luschan-Fischer». In a historical meeting on «Humanism and Humanity in German Political Thought for two centuries», organized by Prof. L. Dupeux, 13-14-15 May 1993.


·        CNRS & Société Française pour l’Histoire des Sciences de l’Homme, (SFHSH = French Society for the History of Human Sciences) conference on "Jewish Intellectuals, Eugenics and Zionist Theoreticians of a «Jewish Race» in Germany (1900-1914)", in the meeting ”Race : Ideas and Practices in  Sciences  and in History,” organized by Prof. A. Ducros and Prof. M. Panoff, 1-2 June 1993.

·        Centre for Historical Research of University Paris I & SFHSH, with the support of Autrement publishing C°: paper on German eugenics, in a meeting on "Eugenics in Europe, Yesterday and Today", sponsored by Autrement publishing C° on January, 13th 1994 for the publication of the book Sciences against Humanity.

·        Institute for Biology, University of Tübingen (Germany), colloquium (in English) for post-graduate students on "Genetics, Eugenics, Politics, and the birth of Biological Anthropology in Germany (1890-1914)", organized on July 4th 1994 by Prof. Dr. Sperlich (chair of population genetics) & PD Dr. Hirschmüller (Institute for the History of Medicine).

·        Zentrum für Wissenschaft und Technikforschung, Graduate College, Bielefeld University (Germany), colloquium for post-graduate students (in English) on "The new problematics raised by the history of German anthropology", organized on Feb. 2nd, 1995 by Prof. P. Weingart.

·        École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Centre Koyré for the History of Sciences, Paris, colloquium on "The «scientific origins of Nazism»: A Question for the history of sciences and for 20th century history", seminar for post-graduate students, organized on March 17th, 1995 by ass. Prof. Claude Blanckaert.

·        Hospital Centre of Brumath (Alsace), paper on «German Psychiatry between Eugenics and Euthanasia», in a French-German conference on «The Situation of Mental Patients in 1939-1945» organized by the Association for Research about Psychiatry in Alsace (APREPA) with the support of AFPP (French Association of Psychiatrists in the Public Sector) on March 14th & 15th 1996.

·        Sciences, Technology, Society Centre of the CNAM (= Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers = institute of technology in Paris), lecture on "Genetic Psychiatry as a Technology of Social Management, Germany 1930 - USA 1990", 24 Feb. 1997, seminar for post-graduate students organized by Prof. Jean-Jacques Salomon, director of the STS Centre of the CNAM.

·        University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, public lecture on "Science, Ethics and Politics", on 28 March 1997, in a meeting on "Science and Ideology", organized by J.-M. Brom, B. Escoubès, B. Jourdant & J. Olff-Nathan.

·        University of Hamburg (Germany), Institute of Medicine Sociology, lecture on "Anthropologie und Humangenetik im Nationalsozialismus oder: Wie schreiben deutsche Wissenschaftler ihre eigene Wissenschaftsgeschichte?" ("How did German Anthropologists and Human Geneticists write the history of their field after the Third Reich?"), on June 19th, 1997, in a one-year lectures cycle on "Humanbiologie im Blick der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften", organized by Prof. Heidrun Kaupen-Haas, director of the Institute for Sociology of Medicine.

·        XIIth "Rencontres de Pétrarque" (annual public & broadcast debate on a specific theme, in the old town of Montpellier), organized by the public radio broadcast "France Culture" in collaboration with the newspaper Le Monde, 15th-19th July 1997, one of five contributors on the first day's program: "Should we trust science?"

·        Union College (Schenectady, NY-State, USA), international colloquium on "Science and Political Ideology", organized by Prof. Mark Walker & Prof. Y. Rabkin (Montreal), from 16 to 20 August 1997.

·        University of Dijon, Gaston Bachelard Research Center on Imaginary and Rationality, international meeting: "Eugenics after 1945, New Forms of an Old Doctrine", organized by Prof. Jean Gayon, 22-23 Sept. 1997 (with D. Kevles / Cal Tech, E. Mendelsohn / Harvard, etc.). Conference on "Eugenics Today?: Three Models" (Authoritarian-Collective / China, Singapore, Taiwan; Welfare State / Europe; Neo-Liberal / USA).

·        INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), U 292 "Public Health - Epidemiology - Human Reproduction", Scientific seminar on "Sterilization and Birth Control: Freedom or Restraint?", 9-10 January 1998. Conference on "Eugenic Sterilization in Germany: from Debate to the Making of a biomedical Utopia (1900-1945)".

·        France-Culture (Public Broadcast Radio), interview "The Book of the week", by journalist A. Mercier (on the book "L'Hygiène de la Race"), 14th Feb. 1998.

·        18th "Salon du Livre" (French Book-Fair in Paris), conference & public debate on "Psychiatry and Medicine before WW2: Horror or Felicity?", 24 March 1998, with Jan Goldstein (Univ. Chicago & author of Consoling and Classifying) and Alain Rubens (journalist, author of a biography on the French psychiatrist Clérambaud), organized by "Institut Synthélabo pour le Progrès de la Connaissance" (Foundation of a French pharmaceutical firm).

·        Alexandre Koyré Centre (EHESS) & SFHSH, meeting on "Social Uses of Anthropological Science. Practices and Applications in France (1859-1940)", 27-28 March 1998, organized by Cl. Blanckaert, contribution on "The Crossed Reception of Vacher de Lapouge's Theories: France - Germany".

·        Oxford Centre for Hebrew & Jewish Studies, international meeting on "Jews and the Social and Biological Sciences", organized by Prof. Mitchell Hart, Florida International University & Dr. David Rechter, Oxford Centre for Hebrew & Jewish Studies; paper on "Biology as Ethics: Advocates of Racial Biology, Eugenics and Kriminalbiologie among Central European Jewish scientists before WW1 (1900-1914)", 3-5th August 1998. Trip canceled.

·        4th Fall University of the (French) League for Human Rights on Fleas (= Chips), Mices, and Men [in French a computer chip is called a "Flea"]. Sciences, Technology and Human Rights, 7-8 November 1998 (with geneticist A. Kahn, human geneticist S. Aymé, specialist of medically assisted procreation R. Frydman, etc.), "Eugenics as the Utopia of a Perfect World", Paris. 

·        International Meeting organized by Centro di Documentazione di Storia della Psichiatria, about Il Sapere e la Vergogna. Psichiatria, Scienze, Cultura Nelle Leggi Razziali del 1938, "Crimes and Medical Violences of German Psychiatry under the Third Reich", Reggio Emilia (Italy), 20-21 November 1998.Medical Faculty Necker- Enfants Malades, Laboratoire d'Éthique Médicale et de Santé Publique, Paris, lecture on 24th avril 1999 on "Les atteintes à l'intégrité de la personne - le cas de la médecine sous le nazisme" for the seminar organized by Prof. Christian Hervé.

·        Medical Faculty, University of Lyon-Claude Bernard, lecture in the context of the class of "Human & Social Sciences" for medical & pharmaceutical students, 17th & 18th March 1999, "Nazi Eugenic Policy and its Victims" (audience of 650 undergraduate students) & "The Role of Psychiatry in Nazi Medical Crimes and Violences" (seminar for graduate students), organized by ass. Prof. Jérôme Goffette.

·        Boston Colloquium for the Philosophy of Science, Boston University, Center for Philosophy and History of Science, on May 9-10th 1999, "Successes and Failures in the Nazification of the Content of Science", for an international meeting on «Science without Freedom in the Twentieth Century» organized by Prof. A. Tauber (BU) & Prof. Y. Rabkin (Montreal).

·        Meeting "Les Procès médicaux en France et en Allemagne, 1929-1997" ("Medical Trials in France and Germany, from the Lübeck trial 1929 up to the AIDS "contaminated blood" trial, through the Nuremberg Medical Trial). Centre Européen d'Histoire de la Médecine - European Center for the History of Medicine, Strasbourg, European Association for the History of Medicine and Health & Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire sur les Sciences et les Techniques / Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg. Paper on "The French perspective on German biomedical research in the Nazi time". And Commentator for the session "From Lübeck to Nuremberg" (V. Roelke, A. Frewer, P. Weindling). 19-20 November 1999. Organisator: Ass. Prof. C. Bonah.

·        Workshop on "Rassenforschung im Nationalsozialismus. Konzepte und wissenschaftliche Praxis unter dem Dach der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft" of the research program "Geschichte der KWG im Nationalsozialismus", at the MPI for the History of Science, Berlin, 3-4th Dec. 1999. Paper presented on "Racial, Human Genetics and Eugenics Research at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute für Anthropologie, menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik in the Third Reich. An introductive Overview". Organizers: Prof. D. Kaufmann & Ass. Prof. H.-W. Schmuhl.

·        EHESS, Paris, presentation on "Le pouvoir biomédical dans l'Allemagne nazie" ("The Biomedical Power in Nazi Germany") for the interdisciplinary seminar "Biology and Society" organized by Cl. Cohen & H. Atlan. 10 April 2000.

·        Paris-V Université R. Descartes, Conférences de Philosophie et d'Histoire de la Médecine, Chaire d'Histoire de la Médecine, Prof. R. Zittoun. Lecture on "Anthropologie Raciale et Nazisme", 18. April 2000. 

·        France Inter, "Alter Ego", National Radio broadcast debate with the geneticist Axel Kahn and the historian of biology André Pichot, May 2nd, 2000.

·        University Paris VII-Denis Diderot (Jussieu), international meeting "Transmission des savoirs et responsabilités des Universités. Nazisme, Vichy, conflits coloniaux et ethniques", "paper on "Bilan de l'Histoire: Comment les historiens ont vu le rôle des sciences biomédicales sous le nazisme (1945-2000)?", 27-28 October 2000.

·        "10e journée d'Éthique Médicale Maurice Rapin" (annual meeting on medical ethics for medical doctors organized by Institut Maurice Rapin with Medicom and sponsored by pharmaceutical company Pfizer), on "Droit à la connaissance, respect des personnes et recherche clinique" (the question of informed consent in clinical research), Paris, with M-A. Hermitte (health Law), A. Fagot-Largeaut (philosophy and history of medicine), F. Wells (Chairman, Ethical Issues Committee of Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK, D. Sicard, Chairman of the French Comité Consultatif National d'Éthique, etc.), lecture on "Le contexte historique et médical du Code de Nuremberg", 17-18 November 2000

·        Double lecture with discussion (= 2 x 1h30) "La Biopolitique Nazie (1933-1945)" for the Amicale des Déportés d'Auschwitz et des Camps de Haute-Silésie and the Association des Professeurs d'Histoire-Géographie in the context of the meeting "De l'eugénisme à la Shoah", organized in Paris, on December, 16th, 2000.

·        Centre Cavaillès, École Normale Supérieure (Rue d‘Ulm), paper on "La photographie raciale en Allemage nazie : entre saisie de "l'âme raciale", technique identificatrice et iconographie politique”, at a conference on "Physiognomonie”, organized by Nadeije Laneyrie-Dagen with historians of arts and historians of science (including John van Wihe, Cambridge, and Martin Porter, Oxford / Florence), 17th March 2001.

·        Lecture for the Association Française de Criminologie in Paris: "De l'hérédité du crime aux solutions eugénistes à la criminalité: comparaison France-Allemagne", 20th March 2001.

·        21st Annual Holocaust Conference, "Nazi Science and the Holocaust", Millersville University (PA), USA, April 22-23, 2001, Paper on "Fingerprinting race. Dermatoglyphics and the search for race in Nazi «race science»", 22-23 April 2001. Trip cancelled.

·        Presidential Commission of the Max Planck Society "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism", international meeting, with twin survivors from Auschwitz, "Biowissenschaften und Menschenversuche an Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten. Die Verbindung nach Auschwitz" (Biomedical Sciences and Human Experiments at Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes - The Auschwitz Connection), organized by Carola Sachse, Paper on "Verschuer, Mengele, Twin Research and the Auschwitz-Dahlem Connection", 7-8 June 2001.

·        Fondation Auschwitz, Bruxelles (Belgium), co-organization with Prof Frühling of a 2-days Seminar on "Les Sciences sous le IIIe Reich" under the responsability of director Y. Thanassekos. With 2 lectures: "Les sciences sous le IIIe Reich" and "La science raciale nazie". 16-17 Novembre 2001.


·        Presidential Commission of the Max Planck Society "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism", public lecture on "Rassenforschung: Was war das? Das KWI für Anthropologie, menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik im «Dritten Reich»", Wissenschaftsforum, Berlin, 29th November 2001.



VIII. Translations (1989-1997)


Numerous translations from English or German to French, including translation of articles in the history and sociology of science and medicine.


For example from English to French:


C. Lyell, "De la présence d'objets fabriqués par l'homme dans des dépôts post-pliocènes", in N. Richard (ed.), L'invention de la préhistoire: une anthologie, Presse Pocket, 1992, pp.85-92.


M. Gane, "Le normal et la pathologique", pp.185-206, in M. Borlandi & L. Mucchielli (éd.), La sociologie et sa méthode. Les Règles de Dukheim un siècle après, Harmattan, Histoire des sciences humaines, 1995.


Michael Lynch, Ruth McNally & Patrick Daly, "La science au tribunal: De la science des cours princières à l'expertise scientifique automatisée des tribunaux", La Recherche, July-August 1997.


For example from German to French:

Unpaid voluntary translation (from German to French) of the presentation booklet of the Hadamar Memorial  (psychiatric centre where more than 10 000 mentally ill and handicapped people have been subjected to ”euthanasia” in Nazi Germany) (1993).



IX. Non-historical Publications & Reports

05 1985 : Report for ISG (Business school), on the potential market for private TV Stations in France with comparison of public TV and private TV costs.

06 1986 : Report (in English) for ISG (Business school) on Japanese TV; used by the ”Perrin Report” (on Sponsorship by private companies) for the Prime Minister.

10 1986 : Article on "News on Japanese TV" in: Les Dossiers de l’audiovisuel  (Institut National de l’Audiovisuel - La Documentation Française [= French Government Publication Agency]), January / Feb. 1987, pp.56-58.

01 1997: Following a claim at the UNESCO meeting on the 50th anniversary of the Nuremberg Trial of Doctors (Dec. 1996), about French military archives concerning Nazi scientists which are not open to historians before the year 2045, presentation of a Report about these archives as well as about the unfortunate lacking of Institutes for the History, Sociology and Ethics of Medicine in France to the Health Minister Hervé Gaymard.


IX. Historical Reports

Co-author with Carola Sachse, head of the Research Group of the Presidential Commission of the Max Planck Society "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National-Socialism", of the Report: Biowissenschaftliche Forschung an Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten und die Verbrechen des NS-Regimes. Informationen über den gegenwärtigen Wissensstand, (= Biomedical Research at Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the Crimes of the Nazi  Regime) published as Ergebnisse. Vorabdrucke aus dem Forschungsprogramm "Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus", Heft 3, Berlin 2000, and on internet. Oct. 2000)


This report synthesized all published information concerning the involvement in criminal research and / or Nazi elimination policy by biomedical scientists of four research institutes (KWI for Anthropology, Human genetics and Eugenics, KWI for Psychiatry, KWI for Brain Research, KWI for Biochemistry) of the previous Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National-Socialism. It was intended to settle a controversy between the Max Planck Society and some of his critics concerning the level of present knowledge or lack of knowledge about the responsibility of KWG scientists. Widely commented in the German press. It contributed to the decision of the President of the Max Planck Society to apologize publicly in June 2001 in front of twins, survivors of Auschwitz, for what had been committed by former institute directors and scientists of the KWG.